Classification of Artificial Tears

I: Composition and Properties

  • J. Murube
  • A. Paterson
  • E. Murube


Part of the
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology[2]
book series (AEMB, volume 438)


Natural tears serve three main functions: they maintain the metabolism of the ocular surface tissues, afford a smooth surface that allows regular light refraction, and lubricate the ocular surface to facilitate blinking. They also have other functions, such as specific and non-specific antimicrobial and buffer effects, etc. Natural tears have a complex composition, water being the major component (98–98.5%), as well as salts, hydrocarbons, proteins, and lipids. There are two types of tear components: structural and active. The structural components of tears are rather abundant, and are the basis of the three-layered architecture of the tear film (lipid, aqueous, and mucinic) because of their physical and chemical properties. The active components of tears are very scarce, and act as nutrients, antimicrobials, enzymes, messengers, inhibitors, etc. Some tear components may serve both types of functions.


Corneal Epithelium Lipid Layer Polyacrylic Acid Oncotic Pressure Artificial Tear 

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.[4]


  1. 1.

    Swan KC. Use of methylcellulose in ophthalmology. Arch Ophthalmol. 1945; 33: 378–381.CrossRef[5]Google Scholar[6]
  2. 2.

    Aguilar Bartolomé JM. El empleb de la metilcelulosa en oftalmologia. Arch Soc Oftalmol Hisp-Amer (Arch Soc Espan Oftalmol). 1957; 17: 203–214.Google Scholar[7]
  3. 3.

    Gifford S, Puntenney I, Bellows J. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Arch Ophthalmol. 1943; 30: 207–216.CrossRef[8]Google Scholar[9]
  4. 4.

    Guömundsson OG, Thôrisdôttir S, Loftsson T, et al. 2-Hydroxypropyl-(3-cyclodextrin (HPPCD) and cholesterol tear substitute. ARVO Abstracts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994; 35: 5 1694.Google Scholar[10]
  5. 5.

    Cantonnet A. Formules de collyres isotoniques aux larmes. Arch Ophtalmol(Paris). 1908; 28: 617–621.Google Scholar[11]
  6. 6.

    Mastman GJ, Baldes EJ, Henderson JW. The total osmotic pressure of tears in normal and various pathologic conditions. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961; 65: 509–513.PubMed[12]CrossRef[13]Google Scholar[14]
  7. 7.

    Gilbard JP, Kenyon KR. Tear diluents in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Ophthalmology. 1985; 92: 646–650.PubMed[15]Google Scholar[16]
  8. 8.

    Holly FJ, Lamberts DW. Effect of nonisotonic solutions on tear osmolarity of tear substitutes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1981; 20: 236–245.PubMed[17]Google Scholar[18]
  9. 9.

    Zisman WA. Relation of the equilibrium contact angle to liquid and solid constitution. ACS Adv Chem Series. 1964; 43: 1–51.CrossRef[19]Google Scholar[20]
  10. 10.

    Holly FJ, Lemp MA. Wettability and wetting of corneal epithelium. Exp Ey Res. 1971; 11: 239–250.CrossRef[21]Google Scholar[22]
  11. 11.

    Chen JL, Cyr GN. In: Manly RS, ed. Adhesion in Biological Systems. New York: Academic Press; 1970: 163.CrossRef[23]Google Scholar[24]
  12. 12.

    Rolando M, Refojo MF, Kenyon KR. Increased tear evaporation in eyes with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983; 101: 557–558.PubMed[25]CrossRef[26]Google Scholar[27]
  13. 13.

    Shimazaki J, Sakata M, Tsubota K. Ocular surface changes and discomfort in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995; 113: 1266–1270.PubMed[28]CrossRef[29]Google Scholar[30]

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Murube
  • A. Paterson
  • E. Murube
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyHospital Ramon y CajalMadridSpain


  1. ^ Visit Springer Citations for full citation details (
  2. ^ Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (
  3. ^ log in (
  4. ^ Download preview PDF. (
  5. ^ CrossRef (
  6. ^ Google Scholar (
  7. ^ Google Scholar (
  8. ^ CrossRef (
  9. ^ Google Scholar (
  10. ^ Google Scholar (
  11. ^ Google Scholar (
  12. ^ PubMed (
  13. ^ CrossRef (
  14. ^ Google Scholar (
  15. ^ PubMed (
  16. ^ Google Scholar (
  17. ^ PubMed (
  18. ^ Google Scholar (
  19. ^ CrossRef (
  20. ^ Google Scholar (
  21. ^ CrossRef (
  22. ^ Google Scholar (
  23. ^ CrossRef (
  24. ^ Google Scholar (
  25. ^ PubMed (
  26. ^ CrossRef (
  27. ^ Google Scholar (
  28. ^ PubMed (
  29. ^ CrossRef (
  30. ^ Google Scholar (

Source URL: Read More
The public content above was dynamically discovered – by graded relevancy to this site’s keyword domain name. Such discovery was by systematic attempts to filter for “Creative Commons“ re-use licensing and/or by Press Release distributions. “Source URL” states the content’s owner and/or publisher. When possible, this site references the content above to generate its value-add, the dynamic sentimental analysis below, which allows us to research global sentiments across a multitude of topics related to this site’s specific keyword domain name. Additionally, when possible, this site references the content above to provide on-demand (multilingual) translations and/or to power its “Read Article to Me” feature, which reads the content aloud to visitors. Where applicable, this site also auto-generates a “References” section, which appends the content above by listing all mentioned links. Views expressed in the content above are solely those of the author(s). We do not endorse, offer to sell, promote, recommend, or, otherwise, make any statement about the content above. We reference the content above for your “reading” entertainment purposes only. Review “DMCA & Terms”, at the bottom of this site, for terms of your access and use as well as for applicable DMCA take-down request.

Acquire this Domain
You can acquire this site’s domain name! We have nurtured its online marketing value by systematically curating this site by the domain’s relevant keywords. Explore our content network – you can advertise on each or rent vs. buy the domain. | Skype: TLDtraders | +1 (475) BUY-NAME (289 – 6263). Thousands search by this site’s exact keyword domain name! Most are sent here because search engines often love the keyword. This domain can be your 24/7 lead generator! If you own it, you could capture a large amount of online traffic for your niche. Stop wasting money on ads. Instead, buy this domain to gain a long-term marketing asset. If you can’t afford to buy then you can rent the domain.

About Us
We are Internet Investors, Developers, and Franchisers – operating a content network of several thousand sites while federating 100+ eCommerce and SaaS startups. With our proprietary “inverted incubation” model, we leverage a portfolio of $100M in valued domains to impact online trends, traffic, and transactions. We use robotic process automation, machine learning, and other proprietary approaches to power our content network. Contact us to learn how we can help you with your online marketing and/or site maintenance.